Electronics · python · raspberry pi

[FIXED!!!] Turn on a lamp with a gesture – Image Processing! Machine learning!


Source: http://makezine.com/projects/raspberry-pi-potter-wand/

Make has a write-up on wand-control with a simple reflective wand…

…it *was* broken.  Fixed it.

Back in January when I first read the article I was so excited to try it, I ordered a bunch of parts, downloaded the Git, and then figured out it didn’t work.

Not to worry though.  A fellow named John Horton contacted me, and inspired me to try again.  This time, I decided to try to understand the code, and get it up to snuff.  If you want to skip ahead.  The code is here:


To be clear… I’m not a python dev… those that are will definitely cringe… Sorry.

Here is the original writeup…


The original concept is fantastic… it just didn’t work for me.

So I tried to get it going from the ground up, and rearchitected the source so its multi-threaded, and uses machine learning to match gestures.  Even the image feed is fast! 😉

First, prepare the PI3 by installing OpenCV

First – start with a fresh disk.  I use piBakery:


These are the exact steps I used to get a fresh full-desktop PI3 up and running:


They were mostly gleaned from here (with one minor fix):


Like many of you, I tried piles of instructions without success.  I was surprised when this set worked with out a hitch.

Next, get the code…

I’ve made the code available here:

git clone https://github.com/mamacker/pi_to_potter

It has a version that is very close to the original, just sped up and tweaked.  That one is called rpotter.py.


The other one I created is called trained.py, in that one I used machine learning!!!  Which was extremely entertaining.

To run it, cd into pi_to_potter:

python trained.py

Note – it takes a while to start up, because it runs through all of the images in the Pictures directory to train itself to recognize those gestures.

Make sure your environment is mostly free of reflective surfaces.  Those reflections behind you will ruin the wand detection.  You want one dot… the wand. 🙂

Once the code is running, put something reflective in your camera’s field of view.  Make sure its just a point, otherwise your gesture will be difficult to see.  Once something is seen.  Two windows will come up:

Screen Shot of Trained in Action

The “Original” will flicker between the real image, and any detected, thresholded, light reflection.  Original, should be where you see motion.

The “Raspberry Potter” window, will show you any tracks created by Optical Flow.

Finally, watch the command-line logs.  That’s where you’ll see the name of the recognized image.  When you are ready to do something based on a recognition, update the Spells function.  You can refer to some other articles on how to control outlets for fun:

Raspberry PI Controlling Power through GPIO (no wifi needed)

Raspberry PI for controlling TP-Link POWER

Raspberry PI for Controlling Wemo Power

Universal Studio’s Wands are really bad reflectors… Or there is other magic…

Universal Studio’s wands are really bad reflectors.  They must have some serious emitters at the park, because getting light back from them is terribly difficult.  So I ordered a bunch of other materials to try out.

This tape worked:51K10mxgGuL._SL1000_

White Reflective Tape

This is the tape on the end of cost-effective-for-kids wands I found:

Screen Shot 2017-12-09 at 7.04.10 PM

I found the wands on Etsy:


There are other reflectors… but I have yet to try them.  I’ll updated once I give them a go:61aa7ewie4l-_sl1200_

Retroreflective Tape

The camera I used – the Pi Noir




How this technique works…

This technique uses image processing to track the wands position through a series of pictures taken on the camera.  It first has to find the wand within the view, once its identified the wand light, it uses a function in the OpenCV package to track its movement:

calcOpticalFlowPyrLK:  Calculates an optical flow for a sparse feature set using the iterative Lucas-Kanade method with pyramids.

This provides points from the image set which can be matched against the gesture “shapes”.  Where the shape check in the original simply takes two line segments, identifies them as move up, left, down or right.  The combination of any two creates a recognizable request.

It’s really quite brilliant in its simplicity.

The original code for the image recognition is found here:


And it’s wonderfully tiny.  The updated version is found in my repo here:


Now you can train it!!!

The “triangle” training set

So, while I was in there I was able to add the ability to train for gestures.  Once you have the whole system up and running.  Add the –train flag.  That will start storing new images in the /Pictures directory.  These will be the attempts at gestures people do in front of your camera.  You get a starter set I recorded when you get the repo.

python trained.py --train

Practice the gestures until you get a good set of them in the Pictures folder, at least 5, and they need to be distinct enough from the others to not conflict.  Once you have a good collection, create a folder for them with a simple name.  Something like “star”, or “book”, or “funny”.  Then that command will be auto-learned at the next restart.

The last step is to add an “if” statement that uses it in the “Spell” function:

Screen Shot 2017-12-09 at 7.15.28 PM.png

Add your new name in that list… and make it do something!  Once you’re done, restart the code, and watch for your recognition to show in the logs.

I’ll let you know…

I’ll try again as soon as my reflective bits come in.

If you have a little more funds and less time – the build where the smarts are in the wand can be found here:

Raspberry Pi – Control by Magic Wand!


66 thoughts on “[FIXED!!!] Turn on a lamp with a gesture – Image Processing! Machine learning!

  1. Hi,
    Thanks for the new code, it is working great. I had modified it to use a HAT with relays. Anyways I am having trouble running the code at start-up. I did not use PiBakery as I already had the initial drive built using the image from Sean.
    I used both the init.d method and systemd method to get it going at start-up, both failed to load. Below is the log from the systemd method, do you have any idea on why this is not working or the specific steps to get it going from start-up?
    Dec 20 20:39:51 PotterWandGizmo systemd[1]: Starting My Potter Service…
    Dec 20 20:39:51 PotterWandGizmo systemd[1]: Started My Potter Service.
    Dec 20 20:39:59 PotterWandGizmo python[795]: (Original:795): Gtk-WARNING **: cannot open display:
    Dec 20 20:39:59 PotterWandGizmo python[795]: Initializing point tracking
    Dec 20 20:39:59 PotterWandGizmo python[795]: About to start.
    Dec 20 20:39:59 PotterWandGizmo python[795]: START incendio_pin ON and set switch off if video is running
    Dec 20 20:39:59 PotterWandGizmo python[795]: Starting wand tracking…
    Dec 20 20:39:59 PotterWandGizmo python[795]: Running find…
    Dec 20 20:39:59 PotterWandGizmo systemd[1]: potter.service: main process exited, code=exited, status=1/FAILURE
    Dec 20 20:39:59 PotterWandGizmo systemd[1]: Unit potter.service entered failed state.


    1. Hi Tim,
      I’ve never tried to run it from systemd, or initd, but it may be because of the line: “Gtk-WARNING”.
      That’s probably because its trying to open a window from a non-desktop root account, before the desktop is loaded.

      My bet… though again, I haven’t tried it is to use the LXDE to start the app. As mentioned here:

      Specifically this part of that article:
      @/usr/bin/python /home/pi/example.py

      Would look like this:
      @/usr/bin/python /home/pi/pi_to_potter/trained.py

      Put that in your:

      I wrote another article that talks a little about this here:

      Good luck! If you still have trouble, I’ll give it a whirl myself, until I get it going on boot.


      1. I found something odd. The script rpotter.py works fine in the autostart but the trained.py does not start. Both are working fine outside of the autostart.


  2. Ah, that’s probably because I didn’t make sure the paths were absolute.

    This line:
    mypath = “./Pictures/”

    Should be the full path to the Pictures directory. Something like:
    mypath = “/home/pi/pi_to_potter/Pictures”

    Let me know if that doesn’t do it.


    1. I bow to you again. It fixed it. The only issue I have right is that the “spell()” routine gets called twice on each detection, this was in the original code as well.

      I fixed it by adding a check to see if it happened twice quickly so I am fine.


      1. Tim,
        would you be willing to share you startup script? i haven’t been able to get mine to work on startup. Any help would be appreciated.


  3. I’m a Linux newbie, so sorry if this is a dumb question. I’m going through your steps all goes well until I run make, I’m getting linking errors. Undefined references in the image codec.so file.
    Any thoughts on how to fix, I’m lost?


    1. It sounds like one of your dependencies wasn’t properly installed. Have you tried running the package install steps a second time? They all have to succeed before you attempt the make command.


  4. I removed the build directory, re-ran the various library install steps and it works now. Not sure what was the problem exactly but it compiled!!
    Can’t get the trained.py file to run as you describe. Getting errors on that step. I think you address this in a comment above, but I don’t follow what I need to change to fix it. Do I need to edit the trained.py file somehow?


    1. Whoops!!! Sorry about that. You can either, install the dependency:
      sudo pip install pytesseract
      Remove the import line in that file. That was an OCR library I was attempting, but tossed when I added the training. Fixed it in the github repo.

      Sorry again, and let me know if you have any other trouble!


  5. Brilliant work! I’ve finally gotten all the way to tracking, and the IR is picking up the signal well, BUT the lights not he particle internet button aren’t reacting at all. any counsel is much appreciated!


    1. Hi John! Thanks!

      This code doesn’t attempt to turn on pins for the particle. That’s been stripped out to reduce complexity.

      If you’d like to put that back in, you need to bring back the calls to pigpio seen in the original here:

      So you’ll need to (on the pi command line):
      sudo pip install pigpio

      Add pigpio to the python file like this:
      import pigpio

      pi = pigpio.pi()

      Add the various pins you’d like to actuate:
      #pin for Trinket (Colovario)
      trinket_pin = 12

      And specifically update the function “Spell” which has the calls to set pins like this:

      If you have trouble getting this done, let me know. I don’t have a Particle or the various other bits he used, but I can probably make it function without it, and create a file that has the “pins” work going.


  6. Hilarious. I bought three different internet buttons, convinced i’d bricked them in the wiring process (this is outside my level of expertise, I’m afraid). If you’re able to insert those spells into your functioning code (I could never get the original code to track properly), I’ll gladly send you a particle internet button. They’re pretty cool. lmk.


    1. Heh. Thanks for the offer – but don’t worry about sending me anything! I’ve added the pin control. There is a new file called trainedwpins.py. Do a “git pull” to get the latest.

      You use it all the same way, but now you just have to make sure you first run the pgpio service. Like this:
      sudo pigpiod

      Then run the code like this:
      python trainedwpins.py

      I was able to test it with an LED. Kinda fun actually. 😉

      The spells that actuate the pins are:
      CENTER: One line from top to bottom, will turn on the trinket_pin.
      CIRCLE or SQUARE: Will turn on the incendio pin, and turn off switch and nox.
      LEFT: Will turn on the switch pin.
      TRIANGLE: Tuns on the NOX pin.

      Let me know if you have trouble!


  7. Thanks! That was very kind of you. I’ve downloaded the file but am getting the pytesseract error when try to run trainedwpins.py

    any suggestions?


  8. So close! I’m jammed up here:

    Starting wand tracking…
    OpenCV Error: Assertion failed (prevPyr[level * lvlStep1].size() == nextPyr[level * lvlStep2].size()) in calcOpticalFlowPyrLK, file /home/pi/opencv-3.1.0/modules/video/src/lkpyramid.cpp, line 1248
    OpenCV Error: Assertion failed (ssize.area() > 0) in resize, file /home/pi/opencv-3.1.0/modules/imgproc/src/imgwarp.cpp, line 3229
    CAST: mistakes

    Any ideas?


    1. I don’t think that one matters actually. That’s just because the image hit the edge when detecting wand.

      Have you tried using your wand in the view?

      I’ll double check it though…


  9. Yup. That message shouldn’t matter. Its likely because you are getting a reflection near the edge of the screen. That reflection makes it so the image can’t be resized, and the detection fails.

    If you reduce the reflections from your background and bring your shiny thing(the wand) into view. You should see the spells start to get detected.

    If it still doesn’t work – I can add more logging. Let me know!


  10. You show in your picture of the camera, the one with two large lights on the sides. One seller of these lights indicates that they generate significant heat, and but should be able to run up to 30 hours. I would intend for this to run a lot longer than that just like a “regular” light plugged into the wall socket. Any thoughts?

    Also – the non-trained version appears to be somewhat picky. It takes some effort to get the proper motion to trigger a spell. I am using a much less intense light which could be the problem, or the detection needs some tweaking to make it less “picky”. I have not yet tried the trained version. Thoughts on that also would be appreciated.


    1. Hi there! Those little LEDs feel a little cheap for something that will always be on. There are some other 110V based ones you could consider. Something like these:

      The only trouble with these, is you might have to increase the distance to your target due to their brightness.

      And the trained vs. not trained. The Trained version is a *lot* more robust for recognition.

      If you want to make a “real” installation of this – I recommend giving some feedback along the way. Like a chime or ring when the wand is detected, then a jingle as a pattern is recognized.


  11. Hello,
    I was hoping you could help me. I’ve gotten your project to work flawlessly, with the exception that i cannot for the life of me get it to work on startup. It starts up initially, but as soon as i use the wand and it tracks something it shuts down. below is the output from the program. I removed the extra stuff that always comes up. Any help would be most appreciated. Thank you in advance,

    Unable to init server: Could not connect: Connection refused

    (Original:649): Gtk-WARNING **: cannot open display:

    Starting wand tracking…
    OpenCV Error: Assertion failed (key_ != -1 && “Can’t fetch data from terminated TLS container.”) in getData, file /home/pi/opencv-3.3.0/modules/core/src/system.cpp, line 1507
    Exception in thread Thread-3:
    Traceback (most recent call last):
    File “/usr/lib/python2.7/threading.py”, line 801, in __bootstrap_inner
    File “/usr/lib/python2.7/threading.py”, line 754, in run
    self.__target(*self.__args, **self.__kwargs)
    File “/home/pi/pi_to_potter/trainedwpins.py”, line 151, in FrameReader
    frame = imutils.resize(frame, width=400)
    File “/usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/imutils/convenience.py”, line 91, in resize
    resized = cv2.resize(image, dim, interpolation=inter)
    error: /home/pi/opencv-3.3.0/modules/core/src/system.cpp:1507: error: (-215) key_ != -1 && “Can’t fetch data from terminated TLS container.” in function getData


  12. Sure! This is because it doesn’t have access to a desktop to render UI. To start using the desktop gui – use the LXDE to start the script. This article talks about how to do that here:

    Specifically this part of that article:
    @/usr/bin/python /home/pi/example.py

    Would look like this – if you start it this way, it will be able to bring up the windows *after* the desktop starts up:
    @/usr/bin/python /home/pi/pi_to_potter/trained.py

    Put that in your:

    I wrote another article that talks a little about this here:

    If those articles don’t have enough to get you going – let me know and I’ll see about simplifying it in some way.


    1. So after enabling pigpiod autostart on boot by using
      sudo systemctl enable pigpiod

      and using your LXDE instructions I’ve been able to get the internet button to at least light up using the the trainedwpins script on startup, Both with and without a monitor. But it looks like it doesn’t start wand tracking…

      With a monitor, the ‘original’ and ‘Raspberry Potter’ windows don’t pop up, and there’s no terminal window open either. Without a monitor… I have no idea. but probably matches what it’s doing with a monitor.

      Ideas to get it wand tracking from boot, especially without a monitor?


      1. Hmmm. Any chance you have debugging output in your system logs? Should be popping all the windows from opencv. So I’m guessing something is bailing in the LXDE config. Can you post your config file?


      2. I’m a complete novice at Raspberry Pi, and am only starting working towards becoming a hobbyist programmer… So I hope this is what you’re asking for… so my autostart file in my /home/pi/.config/lxsession/LXDE-pi folder reads as follows

        @lxpanel –profile LXDE-pi
        @pcmanfm –desktop –profile LXDE-pi
        @xscreensaver -no-splash
        @/usr/bin/python /home/pi/pi_to_potter/trainedwpins.py

        Let me know if you were looking for something else.
        Thanks for your help!


      3. I have not had my environment up for sometime but I seem to remember that when initially starting the program if there was no “wand” detection then the initial video windows would not work. Basically a fully dark camera view with no reflection will cause an issue. Could that be the problem.


      4. Ah, Tim. Let me back up and try to be a little more clear. the terminal window doesn’t open to even give the trainedwpins script a chance to run through it’s initial startup, let alone even try to start tracking a wand.


  13. Matt, I’m just starting to look at collecting materials for this project. Have you tried or thought about different IR emitters to solve the problem of poor reflection from the Universal studio wands? Any suggestions on that side of the equation?

    Thanks for this great Blog!


    Liked by 1 person

    1. I used the JC 4pcs High Power LED IR Array Illuminator IR Lamp Wide Angle for Night Vision CCTV and IP Camera (Amazon.com, probably others too), The LED IR Array is powered by a DC Power Adaptor 12 V DC 2.1MM sold by sococo (also on Amazon)
      Cost: $11.99 for the array and $4.90 for the 12V supply.
      I removed the array from the case, and removed the light sensor which not helpfully turns off the LEDs when there is ambient light. I hot glued the camera to the back of the panel holding the 4 IR LEDs, using the hole for the light sensor as a view port for the camera.
      While this gave me a great deal of IR, the reflectivity of the wand is still an issue. I would like to have the lamp under normal lighting conditions but I’m not sure this is possible. My memory of Diagonally at Universal is that it is very dimly lit.
      I have not yet had a chance to adequately test this out, if you do try it I’d like to know if you have problems.
      You can see pictures of my light source at https://github.com/Breidenbach/ollivanderslamp.

      Liked by 1 person

  14. It appears that the logic is fairly simple – that tracking begins as soon as the wand is detected. But is this the desired action? The wand will be detected as it enters the field of view and not at the beginning of a spell. Wouldn’t this confuse the algorithm and make a lot of false negatives? I’m thinking that after the wand is detected, the algorithm should wait for the wand to be stationary for a short time, followed by action that defines a spell.


    1. That’s a good idea. You are right that there are a lot of false starts. I was also thinking it might be important to provide some sort of feedback. Either through audio or a hidden led matrix that might show the user where they are.


  15. Hello, I’m hoping you can help me with this. I’m running the training.py file and am receiving the following traceback error:

    File “trained.py”, line 303, in
    t.do_run = False
    NameError: name ‘t’ is not defined

    t sure looks like it’s defined further, but I’m a beginner with all of this and could easily be missing something. Any ideas?


    1. Hmmm. Are you running with Python 2? Any other error messages higher up? Seems like the Thread wasn’t created for some reason… so perhaps there is some other error?


      1. Thanks for the reply! I’m running 2.7.13. It will print:

        Initializing point tracking
        About to start
        Training set…

        and then it runs through all the pictures, labels, indexes, lookup, before spitting out the name error…


    2. I just started this project this weekend. I’ve gotten OpenCV going and am able to get tracking images / spells triggered with the rewritten code. But I encountered the same error running the trained version. Did you ever solve this? I’m working on getting pins added (for the internet button) to the working version since I couldn’t get thit newer trained script to run.


      1. Fixed. Made it figure out where the script is, and then use that as the path for ./Pictures.

        To get the updated code make sure to do a: git pull

        That should get you the updated code. The error came from within the thread, so there wasn’t an appropriate error message.


  16. You are a really on top things! When I get a second, I’ll image my SD card where I’m at and try a second setup with your trained version. Higher learning curve on that one anyhow. I have a functional unit now after adding the pins to your rewritten script, so I’m not breaking it just yet. Lol


  17. Hey Sir,
    i’m at the point where you say to just update the “spells” section with what is needed… which pins are the “trinket” pins or the nox pins. i dont understand how to make a spell just turn on an LED attached to a gpio pin. my goal is to have several spells turn on and off different things attached to the gpio pins. i am not using the particle internet button.

    also, for me, the only thing to work in the trained.py is a bright flashlight. i cannot get any reflections back to the pi-noir camera. even if i power a super-bright IR led from adafruit with a 9v battery and a resistor and point it straight at the camera, it barely shows up on the camera.

    i have a harry potter themed halloween party coming up so i feel really under the gun to accomplish this. any help is much appreciated.


    1. Hmmm. Sounds like you are having a couple of issues. The way this is supposed to work is that you have IR emitters pointed directly at the person doing the wand.

      For me, when using the noir camera, even my finger will do for reflecting, if I’m within 6 inches or so. For that matter, my nieces toes were able to be used as well. 😉

      So I’m guessing, you are using a raspi camera that has the IR filter in place. That IR filter is likely removing the IR light you are reflecting. (This is normal for cameras, the IR spectrum is taken out to improve picture quality.) . The NOIR pi camera comes without that filter, which allows it to work well for this.

      So that is the first part… the second part controlling GPIOs.

      Check out this article for how to use a GPIO:

      Then, if you want to control bigger stuff take a look at my article here:

      Finally the specific part of the code you will modify for recognized images is in the function (pi.write is one way to turn on GPIO pins):
      def Spell(spell):
      global prevSpell
      if (spell == prevSpell):
      prevSpell = spell
      #Invoke IoT (or any other) actions here
      if (spell==”center”):
      print “trinket_pin trigger”


      1. Still no quite getting it.
        I have added the following to the beginning of the rpotter.py file to set pin 12 to turn on and off the LED:
        import RPI.GPIO as GPIO

        i then also added in the spells section:
        elif (spell==”circle”):
        print “circle”

        this is supposed to turn on the LED for 3 seconds when i make the circle but it does not light up, nor does it print the word “circle” in the frame on the screen. using pi.write does not work for me. even if i try that in a separate .py file, i get “name error: name ‘pi’ is not defined”

        I can get the led to turn on in a separate .py file (minus the elif and the print lines in the example above that is) so i know that they work but it does not work when i try to incorporate that in either the rpotter.py file or the trained.py file. what am i doing wrong? Do i need to put the gpio output and tim.sleep statements inside the quotes of the print command?

        Sorry to sound dumb but i am not a programmer and this is very foreign for me.

        lastly, in regards to the camera. i believe that mine does work with IR as it does see the purple ish light in it like my cell phone camera does. its just does not seem very bright at all. mine is the 2.1 camera version but has a green circuit board and all the others i see seem to have a black circuit board. so maybe i have the wrong one. i will order another camera with the attached IR LED’s on the sides. hopefully that will make a difference as well.

        thank you for your help.


      2. It sounds like you have everything ready then. If you have code the turns on the led you are good to go to use that like you have.

        The only part that isn’t working is the IR camera. Since you see purple – I’m pretty sure that isn’t correct.

        Also the “circle” output and recognition will never be seen until that wand pattern is picked up. You will know it is functioning when you start seeing a black window come up with “drag” recognitions for your wand. I’m sorry I’m not near my setup or I would take pictures of the various states.


      3. i do see the drag recognitions pattern on the black window, so i know that the camera is working. what I am still unsure of is how to program what pin turns on from said named spell.
        in your default rpotter.py what is the nox pin on the GPIO pins? or what is the lumos pin on the GPIO pins? or is it not setup to do that? if not, how do i set that up. can you give me the exact code for that?
        thank you again.


      1. OMG… Chris, thank you. that was where the disconnect was.This whole time i was so focused on the trained.py or rpotter.py that i did not even take a look at the trainedwpins.py file. … now it makes sense to me.
        thank you so, so much.

        woo hoo!


  18. First of all I want to thank you for your efforts and of course Sean O for the original post. I am working with my 11 year old on a school project. We found this after he was intrigued by the Harry Potter world at Universal. He is a big fan and decided to do his science project Harry Potter Themed. With my help getting the Pi loaded and compiled he has taken on the initiatives to learn the circuitry, logic, and a bit about the OpenCV technology (as much as an 11 year old brain can) He has learned so much from this project it’s great to watch. He is using the logic to turn on some LED’s and output audio. He recently trained the unit to detect a number “2” gesture to output audio. During the training he captured about 15 images. However, other gestures are triggering the 2 output. I am curious if there are some assumptions being made regarding the image capture. I am letting him work through the troubleshooting and figure out how he wants the final project to look but I would like to explain to him why a circle on the screen is triggering the 2. Thanks for your help


    1. Hi Charles! I’m impressed with your son!

      For the Machine Learning explanation… think of it this way. We are basically trying to create a filter automatically. This filter’s job is to sort something new that comes in, into the slot that is closest to one of our training sets of images. The process of creating that filter is fuzzy and not exact. It takes a set of pixels, and for each collection of pixels in the new one, tries to get as close to some set of the old pixels provided in the training – and more samples that are similar increase the likelihood something will match. The problem with 2 looking like 0, is probably because the training dataset has curved examples, that are really close to the 0 samples, the 0 has more of the ones that are close to your 2 than the 2 sample set has.

      To fix it, you need to tune the samples in the 0 dataset and the 2 dataset, so that they are more distinct from each other. In other words, remove files in the 0 that are too close to the 2 and place more samples of the 2 that look close in the 2 folder.

      You’ll notice that in my sample set, I specifically chose things that would seem very distinct for the filter. Its a fuzzy match, so as the engineer you need to help ensure that the fuzzy part of the filter has as distinct slots as possible.

      That’s why I have “triangle” and 0… very distinctly different. 2 and 8 are really really close, so hard to distinguish. 2 and 0 aren’t that close… but you might be having trouble with when the image is taken too.

      Sounds like you both are learning a lot!!! Congrats on getting this far. Its a wild open world if you can do this stuff. 😉


  19. Hi, in your opinion, what is the best way to have the pi place a sound file as it is doing the “spell”? is there a particular file type that works better? like mp3 or wav?
    thank again.


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